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I
Ch. 30 (5)
Ch. 31 (5)
Ch. 32 (6)
Ch. 33 (8)

Stock Market Crash

Define: The stock prices crashed on Black Tuesday (Oct. 29, 1929)

Significance: it’s one of the causes of the Great Depression

Overproduction

Define: more products were created than people could buy (b/c of assembly line etc.)

Significance: it’s one of the causes of the Great Depression

Underconsumption

Define: People were not buying as much as the economy was producing (b/c of debt & low wages)

Significance: it’s one of the causes of the Great Depression

Federal Reserve System

Define: The central bank of the US that manages the nation’s money supply

Significance: Fed raised the discount rate, which made the depression worse

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act

Define: a law meant to protect American businesses by raising taxes on imports

Significance: caused a trade war so international trade declined (GD↑)

Bonus Army


Define: A group of unemployed WWI vets  who protested to get their bonus early

Significance: The protests made Hoover look uncaring

Hoovervilles


Define: shantytowns where the homeless lived

Significance: They named them after Hoover b/c they accused him of not helping

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)


Define: Hoover’s program to help failing banks, businesses & local governments

Significance: the “trickle-down plan” wasn’t enough to help the needy or with recovery

New Deal


Define: FDR’s plan to help the needy and recovery

Significance: Its “big government” plan was a change from Hoover’s laissez-faire policies

First Hundred Days


Define: the 1st hundred days of FDR’s presidency

Significance: FDR convinced the congress to pass a record # of laws fight the depression

Soup kitchens & breadlines


Define: Kitchens that gave free soup and a piece of bread to the poor and jobless

Significance: It was often the only meal that day

Black blizzard


Define: dust storms

Significance: common in the Dust Bowl states

Dust Bowl


Define: A prolonged drought in CO, KS, TX, NM & OK that made farming impossible

Significance: many farmers lost their farms & moved to California

The Grapes of Wrath


Define: John Steinbeck book that told the story of Okies moving to California

Significance: released during the depression

Okies


Define: People who migrated from the Dust Bowl to California

Significance: they were not welcomed by California workers

The Great Flood of 1936


Define: heavy storms flooded much of the Northeast

Significance: it lead to national flood control laws

 

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

Define: set up to help businesses, labor unions & the unemployed

Significance: Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional

Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)

Define: it helped farmers by paying them to farm less to drive up the crop price

Significance: Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Define: it created jobs for the unemployment

Significance: New Deal “relief” program

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Define: It built public buildings and hired artists to paint, take pictures, etc.

Significance: New Deal “relief” program

Wagner Act

Define: It legalized unions

Significance: it was passed after NIRA was declared unconstitutional

Social Security Act

Define: it reduced poverty for the retired elderly

Significance: it still exists today

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

Define: it organized unions by industry rather than by craft

Significance: it allowed in unskilled workers and blacks

New Deal Coalition

Define: women, minorities, farmers, workers, immigrants, southern whites & city dwellers backed FDR

Significance: it allowed FDR to win 4 elections

Here is an example of a note card.