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I
Ch. 16 (5)
Ch. 17 (6)
Ch. 18 (8)

The Jungle


Define: Upton Sinclair’s book about the poor working & unsanitary conditions of the meat industry

Significance: it led to the Meat Inspection Act

Extractive industries


Define: business that take mineral resources from the earth (e.g. oil, iron & coal)

Significance: it created jobs but also damaged the environment

Tammany Hall


Define: New York city’s political machine

Significance: it helped the poor, including immigrants, but it was also undemocratic  & corrupt

Pendleton Act


Define: it set guidelines for hiring civil servants (government employees)

Significance: it tried to get rid of patronage (giving jobs to friends & political supporters)

Temperance Movement


Define: mov’t to ban alcohol

Significance: progressives argued that it would help elevate the poor & improve their lives

Hull House


Define: a settlement house to help immigrants & the urban poor

Significance: it offered childcare, classes, health services, etc.

Social Gospel


Define: the idea that Christians should reform society, not just themselves

Significance: it challenged social Darwinism & put morality above profit

National Child Labor Committee


Define: it convinced 39 states to ban child labor

Significance: it increased school attendance & school construction

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)


Define: if fought for women suffrage (the right to vote)

Significance: it pushed states to allow females to vote

Tuskegee Institute


Define: Booker T. Washington’s vocational college for blacks

Significance: he argued that blacks could gain respect by getting a skill & working their way up

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)


Define: focused on political rights for blacks (e.g. voting)

Significance: used a more confrontational strategy to gain respect for blacks

Square Deal


Define: Roosevelt’s plan to regulate big business and protect consumers & workers

Significance: he moved the government away from  laissez-fair policies

New Freedom


Define: Wilson’s plan to eliminate all trusts & clean up machine politics

Significance: more power to the ordinary citizen

Pure Food & Drug Act


Define: it set up the FDA to test & approve drugs

Significance: it led safer & more effective medicines

Federal Reserve System


Define: the “Fed” was set up to regulate the money supply

Significance: it helped stabilize our banking system & prevent panics

Sixteenth Amendment


Define: it allowed the federal government to tax income

Significance: it led to lower tariffs & a graduated income tax where wealthy pay more

Seventeenth Amendment


Define: it required the direct election of Senators

Significance: it gave the average citizen more power over the Senate

Eighteenth Amendment


Define: it prohibited or banned alcohol

Significance: the temperance movement argued it would elevate the poor

Nineteenth Amendment


Define: it guaranteed women’s suffrage

Significance: women could now vote throughout the country

Here is an example of a note card.