Ch. 12 (6)
Ch. 13 (6)
Ch. 14 (6)
Ch. 15 (7)

Chisolm Trail

Define: Texas cowboys drove their cattle to the railroad lines in the north

Significance: It ended after farmers closed off the land with barbed wire

Transcontinental railroad

Define: a railroad that went from the east coast to the west coast

Significance: it united the east and the west (increased trade)

Dawes Act

Define: it divided up tribal lands and gave each Indian a small portion

Significance: it ended the communal ownership and reduced Indian culture

Homestead Act

Define: it gave out land in the west to settlers for a small fee

Significance: it populated the west with farmers


Define: former slave who moved west after the civil war

Significance: freedmen had the opportunity to own land

Populist Party

Define: a party that tried to help workers and farmers

Significance: it promoted the 8hour work day, gov’t owned railroads & expanding the money supply

Bessemer Process

Define: innovation that made steel more quickly & cheaply

Significance: stronger railroad rails, bridges & buildings sprang up

Horizontal Integration

Define: firms that do the same thing join together

Significance: “big business” & monopolies drove out small businesses

Vertical Integration

Define: a firm buys a company that does part of the production process (e.g. steel company buys a coal mine)

Significance: the firms can dominate an industry b/c they are more efficient


Define: belief that the government should leave businesses alone

Significance: the gov’t allowed prices to rise from the monopolies

Social Darwinism

Define: best-run businesses would beat out poorly run ones (“survival of the fittest”

Significance: we all benefit if the gov’t doesn’t get involved

Sherman Antitrust Act

Define: law to limit the size of companies

Significance: the law was too weak to break up monopolies

Working Class

Define: urban factory workers (blue collar workers)

Significance: worked under bad conditions (repetitive & dangerous) for low wages

Child Labor

Define: kids who worked in factories instead of going to school

Significance: progressives wanted to ban child labor

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Define: labor union that wanted higher wages, safer conditions  & shorter work days

Significance: used collective bargaining & strikes to achieve goals

Haymarket Affair

Define: violence between the police & anarchists at a protest

Significance: labor leaders feared backing the radical anarchists

Homestead Strike

Define: violence erupted b/t strikers and private security hired by Carnegie

Significance: the gov’t sent in the militia to put down the strike

Pullman Strike

Define: railway car workers shut down the railroad to help railway car builders

Significance: the president sent troops to shut down the strike resulting in violence


Push Factors

Define: The reason why people migrate from their country

Significance: usually b/c of a lack of jobs—also b/c of political or religious persecution

Pull Factors

Define: reasons why people migrate to a particular place

Significance: usually b/c of jobs/land—also for freedom or to join relatives

Ellis Island Immigration Station

Define: European immigrants went through Ellis Island before entering NY

Significance: those who failed medical and legal examinations were sent back


Define: promotion of American values and customs

Significance: education was the tool to assimilate immigrants into US culture


Define: policy or belief favored native-born Americans over immigrants

Significance: nativists didn’t want to allow in more southern & eastern Europeans

Chinese Exclusion Act

Define: banned Chinese immigration & denied those here citizenship

Significance: it led to the creation of Angel Island

Angel Island Immigration Station

Define: the “Ellis Island of the west”

Significance: many were held for months before they were allowed entry into the US

Here is an example of a note card.