Unit XIII Terms

Ch. 44 (5)
Ch. 45 (6)
Ch. 46 (6)
Ch. 47 (5)

Plessy v. Ferguson

Define:established the “separate but equal” rule

Significance: legalized racial segregation (Jim Crow laws) throughout the South.

de jure segregation

Define: segregation due to law

Significance:occurred mostly in the South

de facto segregation

Define: segregation due to custom or tradition (not law)

Significance:  found throughout the country (still found today)

Brown v. Board of Education

Define: Used the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause to find school segregation to be “inherently unequal.”

Significance:  It banned school segregation.

Warren Court

Define: Supreme Court under chief justice Earl Warren (50s & 60s)

Significance:it was an “activist” court that promoted civil rights and liberties (e.g. speech)




Civil Disobedience

Define: the idea that people should take nonviolent action against unjust laws

Examples: it was used with the sit-ins & freedom rides

Civil Rights Act ‘64

Define: it banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex,  religion, or national origin

Significance:  banned discrimination of the workplace & public accommodation

Freedom Rides

Define: CORE & SNCC rode integrated buses through the South to force integration

Significance:  federal government stepped in to protect the protesters & enforce integration

Freedom Summer

Define: CORE & SNCC went to Mississippi to help register blacks & were meant with violence

Significance:  the killing of 3 activists led to a backlash against Miss.


March on Washington

Define: 250,000 people marched in D.C. for jobs, freedom and a Civil Rights law (1963)

Significance:King gave his “I have a dream” speech

Voting Rights Act ‘65

Define: it outlawed literacy tests and set up federal supervision of voter registration

Significance:  the registration of black voters skyrocketed up

Affirmative Action

Define: employers & colleges actively seek out minorities & women

Examples: more women & minorities participated; some called it reverse discrimination

Black Power

Define: an emphasis on pride and political & economic power for blacks

Significance:  emphasized “blackness” rather than the more color-blind integration of MLK

Kerner Commission

Define: it was formed to study the causes of the riots

Significance:  they were caused by bad conditions in the ghettos, a lack of hope & a belief in violent solutions as a last resort

Civil rights Act ‘68

Define: banned discrimination of housing (rent & sales)

Significance:  MLK’s assassination led to its passage

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Ed.

Define: it mandated busing to integrate de facto segregation

Significance:many whites resisted by going to private schools

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Define: it said that affirmative action can occur, though not with racial quotas

Significance:  race can be considered, but it cannot be the only factor

United Farm Workers

Define: Union for mostly Mexican American farm workers (Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huerta)

Significance: Used strikes and boycotts to gain higher wages & benefits

National Organization for Women (NOW)

Define: fought to bring equality to women (political, economic & personal)

Significance:  the Strike for Women’s Equality included a 100,000 marchers

American Indian Movement (AIM)

Define: “Red Power” movement protested poor treatment (police abuse, broken treaties & poverty)

Significance:  the Indian Self-Determination & Education Act was passed in 1975

Japanese Americans Citizens League (JACL)

Define: sought compensation for the Japanese Americans interned during WWII

Significance:  each survivor was given $20,000 & an apology

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

Define: constitutional amendment to give women equal rights

Significance:it was proposed by Congress but it failed to be ratified by the states


Here is an example of a note card.