AMERICAN
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I
Ch. 34 (6)
Ch. 35 (8)
Ch. 36 (6)
Ch. 37 (8)

Munich Pact


Define: Eng. & Fr. agreed to allow Ger. to take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia

Significance: This policy of appeasement didn’t keep Hitler from taking more land

Nazism


Define: Germany’s style of fascism (undemocratic & argued that Aryans are superior)

Significance: it led to aggressive expansion (lebensraum) and to the Holocaust

Spanish Civil War


Define: civil war between the Nationalists (Franco) and the democratic republic

Significance: Ger. & It. backed the Nationalists; the USSR backed the republicans

Neutrality Acts


Define: laws preventing the US from getting involved w/ warring nations

Significance:passed after WWI

 

Blitzkrieg


Define: German strategy of battle (“lightening war”)

Significance: it helped Ger. Conquer other nations quickly

Lend-Lease Act


Define: law that allowed the US to help Eng. & Fr. Fight the Axis Powers

Significance: ended the Neutrality Acts and got us closer to war

 

 

War Productions Board (WPB)


Define: in charge of converting consumer production to war production

Significance: example: it got car companies to make tanks

Executive Order 9066


Define: FDR ordered the evacuation of people of Japanese ancestry from the coast

Significance: it led to the creation of internment camps

Korematsu v. United States


Define: Korematsu argued the internment camps took  away his rights

Significance: the court found the camps constitutional, validating “racial discrimination”

Women’s Army Corps (WAC)


Define: women joined to provide services to the troops abroad & help defend the home

Significance:they drove trucks, operated radios, etc. (200 women died)

Double V Campaign


Define: Blacks wanted to win abroad and at home (end discrimination)

 

Significance: FDR banned discrimination in the defense industry

Tuskegee Airmen


Define: black fighter-pilot unit

Significance: it was a change from the more typical non-combat roles they were given

War Refugee Board


Define: arranged for Jewish refugees to stay at centers in Italy & N. Africa to (escape the holocaust)

Significance: it was created too late

Zoot Suit Riots


Define: white sailors & marines mobbed anyone wearing a zoot suit in LA

Significance: it represents the animosity the white community had for Mexican-American youth

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battle of Stalingrad


Define: at Stalingrad, Russia stopped Germany & started to push them back

Significance: it was a turning point on the Eastern Front

D-Day


Define: the Allies started an offensive against Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France (June 6, 1944)

Significance: it was a turning point on the Western Front

Holocaust


Define: Jews were exterminated in German concentration camps

Significance: it was Germany’s “final solution” to the “Jewish Question”

Battle of Midway


Define: the Americans stopped Japan’s offensive in the Pacific & destroyed its air & sea power

Significance:it was a turning point (we started leapfrogging after it)

Battle of Okinawa


Define: the battle was bloody (100,000 Japanese deaths)

Significance: taking Okinawa was important because we could invade Japan from there

Manhattan Project


Define: it developed the atomic bombs which were dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki (250,000 civilian deaths)

Significance: Japan surrendered (Aug. 14, 1945)

 

 

 

 

 

 

World Bank


Define: a “bank” that lends money to war-torn & impoverished countries

Significance: it is an internationalist policy (not isolationist)

United Nations (UN)


Define: international organization that promotes peace & human rights

Significance: it replaced the League of Nations & the US joined it

Four Freedoms


Define: freedom of… speech & expression, worship, from want & from fear

Significance: FDR’s idea was adopted by the UN

Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Define: basic human rights (e.g. life, liberty)

Significance:based on FDR’s “Four Freedoms” speech

Nuremberg War Crimes Trials


Define: German leaders were charged with war crimes & crimes against humanity

Significance: many were convicted for the holocaust

GI Bill of Rights


Define: the gov’t gave $ to returning GIs to go to college, buy a house or start a business/farm

Significance: it lifted many into the middle class

Geneva Conventions


Define: it set rules for war regarding the sick, prisoners & civilians

Significance: many have ignored these rules since 1949

International Criminal Court (ICC)


Define: international court against genocide, aggression, crimes against humanity & war crimes

Significance: the US has not joined it  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here is an example of a note card.