Fall Final Review Terms

Unit II: A Nation and Its Ideals Emerge [Chapters 4-7]

Mayflower Compact

Define: Separatist agreed to a representative government

Significance: first written framework of self-government (US)

Natural Rights

Define: Enlightenment idea of rights that all men are born with (e.g. life, liberty & pursuit of hapiness).

Significance: Thomas Jeffrson used John Locke's ideas of NRs in the Declaration of Independence.

Constitutional Convention

Define: it was created because of the problems under the Articles (poor economy, Shays Rebellion, etc.)
Significance: created a constitution with a stronger central gov’t

Stamp Act

Define: a tax imposed on the colonists to help Britain pay off the French Indian War

Significance: it was never put into effect, but it led to calls for “no taxation without representation”

Common Sense

Define: a pamphlet  by Thomas Paine attacking the then beloved King George III

Significance: it persuaded the commoners to question Britain and move towards revolution

US Constitution

Define: our plan of government

Significance: it added separation of powers & checks & balances to prevent tyranny

Boston Tea Party

Define: a group of protesters destroyed British tea in reaction to the Tea Act

Significance: it led to the Intolerable Acts

Declaration of Independence

Define: a list of  grievances  against King George III & a justification for independence

Significance: enlightenment ideals of equality, liberty, rights, opportunity & democracy

Bill of Rights

Define: The first 10 amendments of the Constitution.

Significance: spelled out many of the liberties that Americans have (e.g. speech, religion, trial by jury).


Define: Intellectual movement that stressed reason, science & improving human society.

Significance: Many of the Enlightenment ideas were used in the Declaration of Independence & the Constitution.

Articles of Confederation

Define: America’s first constitution

Significance: it was considered too weak (couldn’t tax, no judiciary or army, etc.)



Unit III: The Growth of and Challenges to American Ideals [PPT Lectures & Chapter 11]

Marshall Court

Define: The federal court under Chief Justice John Marshall

Significance: it expanded the power of the federal government

Nullification Crisis

Define: South Carolia tried to nullify, or ignore, federal tariffs but backed down.

Significance: It is an example of the struggle between national and state power.

13th, 14th & 15th Amendments

Define: Reconstruction Era Amendments to help the freed slaves.

13th: Abolish slavery

14th: All men are equal before the law

15th: cannot ban someone from voting bercause of race

Second Great Awakening

Define: a religious revival with an egalitarian message

Significance: it led to calls for temperance, public education & abolitionism

Compromise of 1850

Define: CA would be a free state & the Fugitive Slave Law

Significance: it led to more friction b/t the North & the South

Plessy v. Ferguson

Define: a Supreme Court case over segregation

Significance: segregation was allowed: “separate but equal”


Define: Political reforms were made during the 1820s that allowed more people to vote.

Significance: Land requirements were removed so that poor white men could vote too.



Define: the period after the Civil War when northern Republicans attempted to bring equality to the freed slaves.

Significance: It included the 13th, 14th & 15th Amendments.


Unit IV: Growing Pains & Gains [Chapters 12-15]

Transcontinental railroad

Define: a railroad that went from the east coast to the west coast

Significance: it united the east and the west (increased trade)


Define: belief that the government should leave businesses alone

Significance: the gov’t allowed prices to rise from the monopolies

Push & Pull Factors

Define: Push factors are why immigrants leave a place & pull factors are the reasons why they go to a particular place.

Significance: The most important factors are usually economic (jobs).

Populist Party

Define: a party that tried to help workers and farmers

Significance: it promoted the 8hour work day, gov’t owned railroads & expanding the money supply

Social Darwinism

Define: best-run businesses would beat out poorly run ones (“survival of the fittest”

Significance: we all benefit if the gov’t doesn’t get involved


Define: promotion of American values and customs

Significance: education was the tool to assimilate immigrants into US culture

Horizontal & Vertical Integration

Define: When companies merge together. Horizontal is with similar companies & Vertical is with companies that are part of the same production process

Significance: Companies increased in size during this time.

Working Class

Define: urban factory workers (blue collar workers)

Significance: worked under bad conditions (repetitive & dangerous) for low wages



Unit V: The Progressive Era [Chapters 16-18]


Define: the growth of cities

Significance: Industrialization provided jobs to immigrants & farmers

Social Gospel

Define: the idea that Christians should reform society, not just themselves

Significance: it challenged social Darwinism & put morality above profit

Sixteenth Amendment

Define: it allowed the federal government to tax income

Significance: it led to lower tariffs & a graduated income tax where wealthy pay more

The Jungle

Define: Upton Sinclair’s book about the poor working & unsanitary conditions of the meat industry

Significance: it led to the Meat Inspection Act

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Define: focused on political rights for blacks (e.g. voting)

Significance: used a more confrontational strategy to gain respect for blacks

Seventeenth Amendment

Define: it required the direct election of Senators

Significance: it gave the average citizen more power over the Senate

Extractive industries

Define: business that take mineral resources from the earth (e.g. oil, iron & coal)

Significance: it created jobs but also damaged the environment

Clayton Antitrust Act

Define: a law against companies working together against the consumer

Significance: it led to more competition (lowered prices)


Eighteenth Amendment

Define: it prohibited or banned alcohol

Significance: the temperance movement argued it would elevate the poor

Tammany Hall

Define: New York city’s political machine

Significance: it helped the poor, including immigrants, but it was also undemocratic  & corrupt

Pure Food & Drug Act

Define: it set up the FDA to test & approve drugs

Significance: it led safer & more effective medicines

Nineteenth Amendment

Define: it guaranteed women’s suffrage

Significance: women could now vote throughout the country

Pendleton Act

Define: it set guidelines for hiring civil servants (government employees)

Significance: it tried to get rid of patronage (giving jobs to friends & political supporters)

Children's Bureau

Define: set up by Taft to investigate child labor

Significance: first step towards banning it altogether




Define: reformers who wanted to solve problems caused by industrialism

Significance: helped urban poor economically & politically

Federal Reserve System

Define: the “Fed” was set up to regulate the money supply

Significance: it helped stabilize our banking system & prevent panics



Unit VI & VII: Expanding American Influence [Chapters 19-21, 23 & 25]

Ch. 19-21 (8)
Ch. 22-24 (8)
Ch. 25 (7)


Define: the acquisition of colonies to get resources and markets to sell goods, as well as, to spread democracy and christianity

Significance: the US acquired Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, etc

Big Stick Policy

Define: Roosevelt’s policy to use the navy to further American interests [force]

Significance: we encouraged a revolt in Colombia to get the panama canal

Roosevelt Corollary

Define: it extended the Monroe Doctrine to give the US “international police powers”

Significance: intervene in Latin America (e.g. Dominican Republic)

Moral Diplomacy

Define: Wilson’s policy to promote human rights and self-determination [promote ideals]

Significance: he ended up intervening more than Roosevelt & Taft

Panama Canal

Define: a canal built through Panama to connect the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific ocean so that we can transport goods quickly

Significance:the US helped overthrow the Colombian rule in Panama to get the canal

Open Door Policy

Define: the US policy to prevent Europe and Japan from colonizing China

Significance: the “free trade” allowed the US to sell goods to China & make money

Dollar Diplomacy

Define: Taft’s policy to promote America’s business interests in Latin America [economic]

Significance: Taft put a pro-US gov’t in Nicaragua to protect our businesses

Liberty Bonds

Define: The government sold bonds in order to raise money for the war. The bonds would later be bought back for more money.

Significance: The government used celebrities to promote the buying of bonds.

Great Migration

Define: The mass migration of African Americans from the South to the North and West.

Significance: Racism pushed them out of the South and war jobs pulled them to the North.

Espionage & Sedition Acts

Define: laws to prevent protests that obstructed the war effort

Significance: they limited civil liberties such as free speech

Schenck v. United States

Define: Schenck was arrested for protesting

Significance: the Supreme Court said his free speech could be curbed under “clear & present danger”

Fourteen Points

Define: Wilson’s plan for world peace

Significance: it was partially used for the Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles

Define: the treaty with Germany following WWI that created the League of Nations

Significance: the US didn’t ratify it

League of Nations

Define: int’l organization to promote peace  through collective security

Significance: the US didn’t join it b/c many feared it would commit us to future wars




Here is an example of a note card.